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Aniline Usage And Synthesis

Author: Addtime:2022-07-13 17:17:16 Click:352


Aniline is the simplest primary aromatic amine, a compound formed by replacing one hydrogen atom in the benzene molecule with an amino group. It is a colorless oily flammable liquid with a strong odor. The melting point is -6.3°C, the boiling point is 184°C, the relative density is 1.0217 (20/4°C), the refractive index is 1.5863, the flash point (open cup) is 70°C, the auto-ignition point is 770°C, heated to 370°C to decompose, slightly soluble in water, easy to Soluble in ethanol, ether, chloroform and other organic solvents. Turns brown on exposure to air or sunlight. Steam distillation can be used, and a small amount of zinc powder is added to prevent oxidation. 10-15ppm of NaBH4 can be added to the purified aniline to prevent oxidative deterioration. Aniline solution is alkaline, and it is easy to form salt with acid. The hydrogen atom on its amino group can be replaced by a hydrocarbon group or an acyl group to generate secondary or tertiary aniline and acylaniline. When the substitution reaction is carried out, ortho and para substitution products are mainly generated. It reacts with nitroso Chemicalbook acid to generate diazonium salt, which can be made into a series of benzene derivatives and azo compounds. Aniline is an important chemical raw material. There are more than 300 kinds of important products, mainly used in MDI, dye industry, medicine, rubber vulcanization accelerator, such as p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid in dye industry, N-acetanilide in pharmaceutical industry, etc. It is also a raw material for the manufacture of resins and coatings. In 2008, the consumption of aniline was about 360,000 tons, and the demand in 2012 is expected to be about 870,000 tons. The production capacity of commercial aniline reached 1.37 million tons, and the overcapacity was nearly 500,000 tons. Aniline is very toxic to the blood and nerves, and can be absorbed through the skin or cause poisoning through the respiratory tract. Two methods are mainly used to produce aniline in industry: 1. It is prepared from nitrobenzene by catalytic hydrogenation of active copper. This method can be continuously produced without pollution. 2. Chlorobenzene and ammonia are obtained by reacting at high temperature and in the presence of copper oxide catalyst.